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bk sma darul ulum
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pendidikan kunci masa depan

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1191986
 

Menteri dan Departemen Agama dari th 1945 - 2009

ALIRAN PEMIKIRAN tentang hukum Islam yang penetapannya merujuk kepada Al-Qur'an dan sunah Nabi Muhammas SAW disebut Mazhab Fikih. Abu Hanifah, Malik bin Anas, asy-Syafi'I, Ahmad bin Hanbali, Ja'far as-Sadiq dan Dawud bin Khalaf adalah fukaha yang pemikirannya membentuk suatu mazhab.

MAZHAB PENDIRI PEMIKIRAN PENYEBARAN
HANAFI Abu Hanifah an-Nu'man bin Sabit bin Zauta at-Taimi al-Kufi.
(Kufah, 80 H/699 M-150 H/797 M)
Corak pemikiran hukum :
rasional
Dasar pemikiran hukum :
1. Al-Qur'an
2. Sunah
3. Pendapat sahabat
4. Kias
5. Istihsan
6. Ijmak
7. 'Urf
- Afghanistan
- Cina
- India
- Irak
- Libanon
- Mesir
- Pakistan
- Rusia
- Suriah
- Tunisia
- Turkestan
- Turki
- Wilayah Balkan
MALIKI Malik bin Anas bin Malik bin Abi Amir al-Asbahi, terkenal dengan sebutan Imam Dar al-Hijrah.
(Madinah, 93 H/712 M- 179 H/798 M)
Corak pemikiran hukum :
dipengaruhi sunah yang cenderung tekstual
Dasar pemikiran hukum :
1. Al-Qur'an
2. Sunah
3. Ijmak sahabat
4. Kias
5. Maslahah mursalah
6. 'Amal ahl al-Madinah
7. Pendapat sahabat
- Kuwait
- Spanyol
- Arab Saudi, khususnya Mekah
- Wilayah Afrika, khususnya Mesir, Tunisia, Aljazair dan Maroko
SYAFI'I Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Idris bin As bin Usman bin Syafi asy-Syafi'I al Muthalibi.
(Gaza, Palestina, 150 H/767 M-Cairo, Mesir, 204 H/20 Januari 820 M)
Corak pemikiran hukum :
antara tradisional dan rasional
Dasar pemikiran hukum :
1. Al-Qur'an
2. Sunah
3. Ijmak
4. Kias
- Bahrein
- India
- Indonesia
- Kazakhstan
- Malaysia
- Suriah
- Turkmenistan
- Yaman
- Arab Saudi khususnya Madinah
- Wilayah Arab Selatan
- Wilayah Afrika Timur
- Wilayah Asia Timur
- Wilayah Asia Tengah
HAMBALI Ahmad bin Hanbal bin Hilal bin Asad asy-Syaibani al-Marwazi.
(Baghdad, Rabiulakhir 164 H/780 M- Rabiulawal 241 H/855 M)
Corak pemikiran hukum :
Tradisional (fundamental)
Dasar pemikiran hukum :
1. Al-Qur'an secara zahir dan sunah
2. Fatwa sahabat
3. Jika ada perbedaan fatwa sahabat, digunakan yang lebih dekat dengan Al-Quran
4. Hadis mursal dan daif
5. Kias
- Arab Saudi (mayoritas)
JA'FARI Muhammad Abu Ja'far bin Muhammad bin Ali Zainal Abidin bin Husein bin Ali bin Abi Thalib as-Sadiq.
(Madinah, 80 H/699 M- Madinah, 25 Syawal 148/765 M)
Corak pemikiran hukum :
Tradisional dan rasional
Dasar pemikiran hukum :
1. Al-Qur'an
2. Sunah
3. Ijmak
4. Akal
- Irak
- Iran
- India
- Pakistan
- Nigeria
- Somalia
ZAHRI Dawud bin Khalaf al-Isfahani.
(Kufah, 200 H/815 M- Baghdad, 270 H/883 M)
Corak pemikiran hukum :
Tradisional (fundamental)
Dasar pemikiran hukum :
1. Al-Qur'an
2. Sunah
- Irak (mayoritas)
- Andalusia


Referensi
  • Prof. Dr. Azyumardi Azra, MA, Prof. Dr. Abdul Aziz Dahlan, Prof. Dr. Nurcholish Madjid, etc. Ensiklopedi Islam, Penerbit PT. Ichtiar Baru Van Hoeve, Jakarta, 2005.
  • Prof. Dr. Nurcholish Madjid, Prof. Dr. Azyumardi Azra, MA, Dr. Ahmad Qodri Abdillah Azizy, MA, Dr. A. Chaeruddin, SH., etc. Ensiklopedi Tematis Dunia Islam, Penerbit PT. Ichtiar Baru Van Hoeve, Jakarta, 2008, Editor : Prof. Dr. Taufik Abdullah, Prof. Dr. M. Quraish Shihab, Prof. Dr. H. Ahmad Sukardja, MA.
  • Sami bin Abdullah bin Ahmad al-Maghluts, Atlas Sejarah Para Nabi dan Rasul, Mendalami Nilai-nilai Kehidupan yang Dijalani Para Utusan Allah, Obeikan Riyadh, Almahira Jakarta, 2008.
  • Dr. Syauqi Abu Khalil, Atlas Al-Quran, Membuktikan Kebenaran Fakta Sejarah yang Disampaikan Al-Qur'an secara Akurat disertai Peta dan Foto, Dar al-Fikr Damaskus, Almahira Jakarta, 2008.
  • Tim DISBINTALAD (Drs. A. Nazri Adlany, Drs. Hanafi Tamam, Drs. A. Faruq Nasution), Al-Quran Terjemah Indonesia, Penerbit PT. Sari Agung, Jakarta, 2004
  • Departemen Agama RI, Yayasan Penyelenggara Penerjemah/Penafsir Al-Quran, Syaamil Al-Quran Terjemah Per-Kata, Syaamil International, 2007.
  • alquran.bahagia.us, al-quran.bahagia.us, dunia-islam.com, Al-Quran web, PT. Gilland Ganesha, 2008.
  • Muhammad Fu'ad Abdul Baqi, Mutiara Hadist Shahih Bukhari Muslim, PT. Bina Ilmu, 1979.
  • Al-Hafizh Zaki Al-Din 'Abd Al-'Azhum Al Mundziri, Ringkasan Shahih Muslim, Al-Maktab Al-Islami, Beirut, dan PT. Mizan Pustaka, Bandung, 2008.
  • M. Nashiruddin Al-Albani, Ringkasan Shahih Bukhari, Maktabah al-Ma'arif, Riyadh, dan Gema Insani, Jakarta, 2008.
  • Al-Bayan, Shahih Bukhari Muslim, Jabal, Bandung, 2008.
  • Muhammad Nasib Ar-Rifa'i, Kemudahan dari Allah, Ringkasan Tafsir Ibnu Katsir, Maktabah al-Ma'arif, Riyadh, dan Gema Insani, Jakarta, 1999.

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